Mobile network ecosystem
Regarding ownership, the Mexican mobile network ecosystem was built upon the base of the landline network that operated during the 20th century. Until 1990, the landline network was a state monopoly, which received the name of Teléfonos de México (Telephones of Mexico) and was widely known as TELMEX (an acronym of the name). By the end of the 20th century, the Mexican government started to privatise much of its state monopolies, and during the presidency of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, TELMEX was sold to Carlos Slim Helú. However, Mexico did not open this sector to other investors, and TELMEX became a private monopoly.
When technological convergence began to unfold, TELMEX expanded its operations to the mobile communication business through TELCEL, which has been offering services in the telecommunications realm. Gradually, since the 2000s and especially after the 2014 Constitutional reform, the telecommunications sector began to have more competition and many national and international companies have started to offer services. However, as is demonstrated in the following sections, America Móvil, which owns TELMEX and TELCEL, is still a dominant company that controls telecommunications in Mexico. Drawing from the previous historical background, Mexico is in the process of building a robust mobile network for telecommunication services.