2018 Edition
New countries

Expert summaries and analyses of the state of media in European countries as well as its neighbouring states. An all-new updated edition and growing every day.

  • 36

    Country profiles

  • 44

    Expert authors

  • 350,172

    Words written

Hungary

Hungarian viewers have a choice of over 130 nationwide free or subscription channels and a total of 390 local and regional channels...

  • 73

    Press freedom ranking

  • 80.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 15

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • -1

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Latvia

Freedom of the press was observed in between 1918 and 1934 and since the Latvian independence drive (Atmoda) in the late 1980s...

  • 24

    Press freedom ranking

  • 85.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 32

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 28

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Slovakia

Traditionally, the most trusted source of information has been radio broadcast, in recent years closely followed by television...

  • 27

    Press freedom ranking

  • 85.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 26

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 36

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Georgia

The Georgian media landscape reflects the transitional nature of the Georgian democratic system

  • 64

    Press freedom ranking

  • 52.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 94

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Unitary semi-presidential republic

    Government type

United Kingdom

Radio has remained very popular in the UK and audience numbers have not declined in the same way as other platforms.

  • 40

    Press freedom ranking

  • 94.8 %

    Internet penetration

  • 41

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy

    Government type

Lebanon

In recent years, the Lebanese media landscape has been facing one of its deepest crisis since the formal end of the civil war...

  • 100

    Press freedom ranking

  • 76.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 148

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Portugal

The written press has endured a deep crisis throughout the last years, with loss of readers and advertising...

  • 14

    Press freedom ranking

  • 72.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 3

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • 37

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Greece

Today, all media outlets are facing their most difficult times ever, but newspapers and magazines are suffering the most...

  • 74

    Press freedom ranking

  • 69.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 73

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • -24

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Somalia

Despite the conflict and violence the country has seen, radio stations have grown in number since the state collapsed

  • 167

    Press freedom ranking

  • 7.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 158

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

Iran

Political parties do not exist in Iran. In this situation the media, particularly the newspapers, have assumed a central role...

  • 164

    Press freedom ranking

  • 70.0 %

    Internet penetration

  • 129

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Finland

In Finland, the whole commercial media industry employs about 22,000 people and its turnover is €4.6bn...

  • 4

    Press freedom ranking

  • 92.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 17

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 66

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Nepal

Nepal’s newspapers have a history of over a hundred years but the first private commercial daily newspaper began publishing in 1993.

  • 100

    Press freedom ranking

  • 54.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 93

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

Nigeria

Once dominated by print, radio and television, the Nigerian media landscape is now experiencing a disruption by digital platforms

  • 122

    Press freedom ranking

  • 50.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 149

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

Sweden

Sweden has traditionally been more of a newspaper than television country. Today, it is a very digital country...

  • 2

    Press freedom ranking

  • 92.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 18

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 74

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Switzerland

Over the last 30 years, regional press monopolies have been established in almost all regions...

  • 5

    Press freedom ranking

  • 89.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 9

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Iraq

Higher education in journalism is consolidated in Iraq, but it has remained largely disconnected from global developments since the 1970s...

  • 160

    Press freedom ranking

  • 36.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 161

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Yemen

Two years of war have changed the Yemeni media landscape for worst in terms of publications, independence, freedom of the media...

  • 167

    Press freedom ranking

  • 24.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 159

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Pakistan

Pakistan’s is a multi-linguistic media landscape with clear urban-rural disparities.

  • 139

    Press freedom ranking

  • 22.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 152

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

United States

The United States media system has entered a period of intense change: the number of channels, and thus of competitors, is multiplying

  • 43

    Press freedom ranking

  • 95.6%

    Internet penetration

  • 114

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional Federal Republic

    Government type

Egypt

Egypt features a media landscape which have witnessed many changes and challenges since the January 25 revolution in 2011.

  • 161

    Press freedom ranking

  • 49.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 139

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Germany

The German-speaking media market is comprised of about 100 M people, characterised by a long and deeply-rooted tradition of the press...

  • 15

    Press freedom ranking

  • 89.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 16

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 26

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Myanmar

In Myanmar, Facebook "is" the Internet. It enjoys supremacy over all other forms of social media

  • 131

    Press freedom ranking

  • 33.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 104

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Republic

    Government type

France

Press, radio and TV markets are affected by a growing concentration in which main media outlets are held by fewer companies

  • 39

    Press freedom ranking

  • 86.8 %

    Internet penetration

  • 51

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-Presidential Republic

    Government type

Norway

Radio was established in the mid-1920s. In 1933, four private local radio companies were merged into a national, state-owned company...

  • 1

    Press freedom ranking

  • 99.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 14

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Bangladesh

Bangladesh is one of the countries where Internet is growing at a good pace.

  • 147

    Press freedom ranking

  • 48.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 84

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Republic

    Government type

Syria

Syria cannot be considered any longer a unitary context. What is true in one area of the country does not necessarily apply to the others...

  • 177

    Press freedom ranking

  • 31.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 163

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Spain

The media landscape painted in Spain in the early 1990s survives to a great extent today and, with it, its wide ideological range...

  • 31

    Press freedom ranking

  • 87.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 23

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 4

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Italy

Television is a major agenda setter within the Italian public sphere. The audiences are higher than those in many other countries...

  • 46

    Press freedom ranking

  • 86.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 38

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 11

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

El Salvador

Television is the most important medium in the country. It is the most widespread and the one that receives the most from advertisers.

  • 62

    Press freedom ranking

  • 50.3%

    Internet penetration

  • 115

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Russia

Radio broadcasting in Russia is developing with a comparatively good business dynamic.

  • 148

    Press freedom ranking

  • 76.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 151

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-Presidential Republic

    Government type

Belgium

Belgium is a country with a highly complex political structure and is divided into three different language communities...

  • 7

    Press freedom ranking

  • 87.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 19

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 30

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Serbia

Television is by far the most popular type of media in Serbia.Today, there are more than 200 TV stations

  • 66

    Press freedom ranking

  • 67.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 56

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Republic

    Government type

Indonesia

Radio is one of the most popular media in Indonesia and is broadcasted everywhere in the country

  • 124

    Press freedom ranking

  • 53.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 52

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Sudan

The media landscape in Sudan reflects an extremely restrictive environment coupled with a lack of institutional support.

  • 174

    Press freedom ranking

  • 28.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 155

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Netherlands

The Dutch media are going digital at a rapid pace. This is shown by the growth of digital users, with more than 90% of the population...

  • 3

    Press freedom ranking

  • 94.8 %

    Internet penetration

  • 19

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 43

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Austria

The media landscape is characterized by two dominating groups: the public service broadcaster ORF and largest newspaper "Kronenzeitung"...

  • 11

    Press freedom ranking

  • 84.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 4

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 26

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Recent updates

Media Landscapes have been updated with new country reports that map the state of media in 14 additional countries.
Five new practical guides have been added for journalists involved in high-risk countries, namely Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Yemen and Syria.
Welcome to the brand new medialandscapes.org, with 20 new Media landscapes by 26 expert authors

Media Landscapes Expert analyses of the state of media

Our media landscapes are rapidly evolving. In a new era of digital content, media organisations are trying to build innovative new formats, business models and companies to both attract and retain audiences.

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