2019 Edition
New countries

Expert summaries and analyses of the state of media in European countries as well as its neighbouring states. An all-new updated edition and growing every day.

  • 54

    Country profiles

  • 70

    Expert authors

  • 525,258

    Words written

France

Press, radio and TV markets are affected by a growing concentration in which main media outlets are held by fewer companies

  • 39

    Press freedom ranking

  • 86.8 %

    Internet penetration

  • 51

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-Presidential Republic

    Government type

Indonesia

Radio is one of the most popular media in Indonesia and is broadcasted everywhere in the country

  • 124

    Press freedom ranking

  • 53.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 52

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

DRC

The journalism profession offers free access to all people including those who do not have a university education in journalism.

  • 154

    Press freedom ranking

  • 11.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 156

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-presidential Republic

    Government type

Pakistan

Pakistan’s is a multi-linguistic media landscape with clear urban-rural disparities.

  • 139

    Press freedom ranking

  • 22.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 152

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

Sudan

The media landscape in Sudan reflects an extremely restrictive environment coupled with a lack of institutional support.

  • 174

    Press freedom ranking

  • 28.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 155

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Russia

Radio broadcasting in Russia is developing with a comparatively good business dynamic.

  • 148

    Press freedom ranking

  • 76.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 151

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-Presidential Republic

    Government type

Philippines

Television is the most used and trusted media in the Philippines. Around 81 percent of the population watch television.

  • 134

    Press freedom ranking

  • 62%

    Internet penetration

  • 138

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Burundi

The Burundian media landscape is dominated by radio, even if in 2015 the most popular ones were destroyed.

  • 159

    Press freedom ranking

  • 5.3%

    Internet penetration

  • 135

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Lebanon

In recent years, the Lebanese media landscape has been facing one of its deepest crisis since the formal end of the civil war...

  • 100

    Press freedom ranking

  • 76.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 148

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Afghanistan

Mobile telephones were introduced in 2002. Today, 19 million people are using mobile phones out of a population of approximately 32 million.

  • 118

    Press freedom ranking

  • 15.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 162

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Islamic Republic

    Government type

Spain

The media landscape painted in Spain in the early 1990s survives to a great extent today and, with it, its wide ideological range...

  • 31

    Press freedom ranking

  • 87.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 23

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 4

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Guatemala

Unlike other media, television has not lost the leadership in being one of the most influential channels to shape Guatemalans’ opinions.

  • 116

    Press freedom ranking

  • 34.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 111

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

South Sudan

Radio is the most largely consumed and trusted media in South Sudan. In Juba city alone, 66 percent of the population have access to radio.

  • 139

    Press freedom ranking

  • 16.8%

    Internet penetration

  • 161

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

United Kingdom

Radio has remained very popular in the UK and audience numbers have not declined in the same way as other platforms.

  • 40

    Press freedom ranking

  • 94.8 %

    Internet penetration

  • 41

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy

    Government type

Finland

In Finland, the whole commercial media industry employs about 22,000 people and its turnover is €4.6bn...

  • 4

    Press freedom ranking

  • 92.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 17

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 66

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Italy

Television is a major agenda setter within the Italian public sphere. The audiences are higher than those in many other countries...

  • 46

    Press freedom ranking

  • 86.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 38

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 11

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Portugal

The written press has endured a deep crisis throughout the last years, with loss of readers and advertising...

  • 14

    Press freedom ranking

  • 72.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 3

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • 37

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Mali

Since the liberalisation of airwaves in 1992, the number of private radios increased exponentially, confirming radio as the most popular med

  • 112

    Press freedom ranking

  • 63.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 145

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-presidential Republic

    Government type

Slovakia

Traditionally, the most trusted source of information has been radio broadcast, in recent years closely followed by television...

  • 27

    Press freedom ranking

  • 85.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 26

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 36

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Switzerland

Over the last 30 years, regional press monopolies have been established in almost all regions...

  • 5

    Press freedom ranking

  • 89.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 9

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

CAR

Print, radio and TV have not invested on acquiring an Internet presence and suffer as a result from a chronic lack of visibility.

  • 145

    Press freedom ranking

  • 5.3%

    Internet penetration

  • 157

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Norway

Radio was established in the mid-1920s. In 1933, four private local radio companies were merged into a national, state-owned company...

  • 1

    Press freedom ranking

  • 99.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 14

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Egypt

Egypt features a media landscape which have witnessed many changes and challenges since the January 25 revolution in 2011.

  • 161

    Press freedom ranking

  • 49.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 139

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Myanmar

In Myanmar, Facebook "is" the Internet. It enjoys supremacy over all other forms of social media

  • 131

    Press freedom ranking

  • 33.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 104

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Republic

    Government type

United States

The United States media system has entered a period of intense change: the number of channels, and thus of competitors, is multiplying

  • 43

    Press freedom ranking

  • 95.6%

    Internet penetration

  • 114

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional Federal Republic

    Government type

Somalia

Despite the conflict and violence the country has seen, radio stations have grown in number since the state collapsed

  • 167

    Press freedom ranking

  • 7.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 158

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

Netherlands

The Dutch media are going digital at a rapid pace. This is shown by the growth of digital users, with more than 90% of the population...

  • 3

    Press freedom ranking

  • 94.8 %

    Internet penetration

  • 19

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 43

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Honduras

Starting from 1990 the audiovisual system underwent a process of adaptation to new neoliberal regulations in telecommunications.

  • 181

    Press freedom ranking

  • 32.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 118

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Syria

Syria cannot be considered any longer a unitary context. What is true in one area of the country does not necessarily apply to the others...

  • 177

    Press freedom ranking

  • 31.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 163

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Belgium

Belgium is a country with a highly complex political structure and is divided into three different language communities...

  • 7

    Press freedom ranking

  • 87.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 19

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 30

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Bangladesh

Bangladesh is one of the countries where Internet is growing at a good pace.

  • 147

    Press freedom ranking

  • 48.4 %

    Internet penetration

  • 84

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Republic

    Government type

Armenia

The Armenian print media are in a dire economic state. Newspaper printing is an exceedingly losing business

  • 80

    Press freedom ranking

  • 72.4%

    Internet penetration

  • 120

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary democracy

    Government type

Libya

Gaddafi’s regime nationalised all publishing and press organisations, no private press was allowed to operate in Libya for over 25 years

  • 162

    Press freedom ranking

  • 58.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 153

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • In transition

    Government type

Germany

The German-speaking media market is comprised of about 100 M people, characterised by a long and deeply-rooted tradition of the press...

  • 15

    Press freedom ranking

  • 89.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 16

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 26

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Niger

  • 66

    Press freedom ranking

  • 4.1%

    Internet penetration

  • 126

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-presidential Republic

    Government type

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijani media are influenced by the political processes in the country and separated in pro-government and pro-opposition media

  • 166

    Press freedom ranking

  • 79.0%

    Internet penetration

  • 133

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Iraq

Higher education in journalism is consolidated in Iraq, but it has remained largely disconnected from global developments since the 1970s...

  • 160

    Press freedom ranking

  • 36.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 161

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Greece

Today, all media outlets are facing their most difficult times ever, but newspapers and magazines are suffering the most...

  • 74

    Press freedom ranking

  • 69.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 73

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • -24

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Austria

The media landscape is characterized by two dominating groups: the public service broadcaster ORF and largest newspaper "Kronenzeitung"...

  • 11

    Press freedom ranking

  • 84.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 4

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 26

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Yemen

Two years of war have changed the Yemeni media landscape for worst in terms of publications, independence, freedom of the media...

  • 167

    Press freedom ranking

  • 24.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 159

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Hungary

Hungarian viewers have a choice of over 130 nationwide free or subscription channels and a total of 390 local and regional channels...

  • 73

    Press freedom ranking

  • 80.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 15

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • -1

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Ukraine

The Ukrainian media market had to be developed from scratch since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

  • 101

    Press freedom ranking

  • 93.0 %

    Internet penetration

  • 152

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Semi-presidential Republic

    Government type

Iran

Political parties do not exist in Iran. In this situation the media, particularly the newspapers, have assumed a central role...

  • 164

    Press freedom ranking

  • 70.0 %

    Internet penetration

  • 129

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Latvia

Freedom of the press was observed in between 1918 and 1934 and since the Latvian independence drive (Atmoda) in the late 1980s...

  • 24

    Press freedom ranking

  • 85.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 32

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 28

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Georgia

The Georgian media landscape reflects the transitional nature of the Georgian democratic system

  • 64

    Press freedom ranking

  • 52.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 94

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Unitary semi-presidential republic

    Government type

Nicaragua

The number of daily copies printed is decreasing along with sales, which have dropped by more than half as of 2019.

  • 114

    Press freedom ranking

  • 30.6%

    Internet penetration

  • 120

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Nepal

Nepal’s newspapers have a history of over a hundred years but the first private commercial daily newspaper began publishing in 1993.

  • 100

    Press freedom ranking

  • 54.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 93

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

El Salvador

Television is the most important medium in the country. It is the most widespread and the one that receives the most from advertisers.

  • 62

    Press freedom ranking

  • 50.3%

    Internet penetration

  • 115

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Nigeria

Once dominated by print, radio and television, the Nigerian media landscape is now experiencing a disruption by digital platforms

  • 122

    Press freedom ranking

  • 50.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 149

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

Venezuela

TV has traditionally been one of the main telecommunication media and it is still the most used.

  • 143

    Press freedom ranking

  • 53.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 143

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal presidential republic

    Government type

Serbia

Television is by far the most popular type of media in Serbia.Today, there are more than 200 TV stations

  • 66

    Press freedom ranking

  • 67.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 56

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Parliamentary Republic

    Government type

Sweden

Sweden has traditionally been more of a newspaper than television country. Today, it is a very digital country...

  • 2

    Press freedom ranking

  • 92.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 18

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 74

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Colombia

Print media with national and regional circulation have traditionally been those of superior influence and credibility in the country.

  • 130

    Press freedom ranking

  • 63.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 143

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Presidential Republic

    Government type

Mexico

In the past decade, Mexico has become one of the riskiest and deadliest countries where to practice journalism, excluding those at war.

  • 147

    Press freedom ranking

  • 65.3 %

    Internet penetration

  • 140

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Federal Presidential Republic

    Government type

Recent updates

Media Landscapes have been updated with new country reports that map the state of media in 13 additional countries.
The Mexican landscape is online! Somalia, Iran, Yemen, Syria, Lebanon, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nigeria and El Salvador have been extended with three new chapters.
Media Landscapes have been updated with 2 new country reports of Afghanistan and Libya and extended our report of Iraq, now covering altogether 38 countries across the world.
Media Landscapes have been updated with new country reports that map the state of media in 14 additional countries.
Five new practical guides have been added for journalists involved in high-risk countries, namely Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Yemen and Syria.
Welcome to the brand new medialandscapes.org, with 20 new Media landscapes by 26 expert authors

Media Landscapes Expert analyses of the state of media

Our media landscapes are rapidly evolving. In a new era of digital content, media organisations are trying to build innovative new formats, business models and companies to both attract and retain audiences.

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