2017 Edition fully updated

Expert summaries and analyses of the state of media in European countries as well as its neighbouring states. An all-new updated edition and growing every day.

  • 20

    Country profiles

  • 26

    Expert authors

  • 194,541

    Words written

Belgium

Belgium is a country with a highly complex political structure and is divided into three different language communities...

  • 9

    Press freedom ranking

  • 88.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 18

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 30

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Portugal

The written press has endured a deep crisis throughout the last years, with loss of readers and advertising...

  • 18

    Press freedom ranking

  • 67.3 %

    Internet penetration

  • 5

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • 37

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Austria

The media landscape is characterized by two dominating groups: the public service broadcaster ORF and largest newspaper "Kronenzeitung"...

  • 11

    Press freedom ranking

  • 81.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 3

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 26

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Finland

In Finland, the whole commercial media industry employs about 22,000 people and its turnover is €4.6bn...

  • 3

    Press freedom ranking

  • 92.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 11

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 66

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Germany

The German-speaking media market is comprised of about 100 M people, characterised by a long and deeply-rooted tradition of the press...

  • 16

    Press freedom ranking

  • 88%

    Internet penetration

  • 16

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 26

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Greece

Today, all media outlets are facing their most difficult times ever, but newspapers and magazines are suffering the most...

  • 88

    Press freedom ranking

  • 64.8 %

    Internet penetration

  • 82

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • -24

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Hungary

Hungarian viewers have a choice of over 130 nationwide free or subscription channels and a total of 390 local and regional channels...

  • 71

    Press freedom ranking

  • 80.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 19

    Peace index ranking

  • TV

    Most trusted medium

  • -1

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Italy

Television is a major agenda setter within the Italian public sphere. The audiences are higher than those in many other countries...

  • 52

    Press freedom ranking

  • 65.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 39

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 11

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Latvia

Freedom of the press was observed in between 1918 and 1934 and since the Latvian independence drive (Atmoda) in the late 1980s...

  • 28

    Press freedom ranking

  • 76.3 %

    Internet penetration

  • 32

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 28

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Netherlands

The Dutch media are going digital at a rapid pace. This is shown by the growth of digital users, with more than 90% of the population...

  • 5

    Press freedom ranking

  • 93.7 %

    Internet penetration

  • 21

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 43

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Norway

Radio was established in the mid-1920s. In 1933, four private local radio companies were merged into a national, state-owned company...

  • 1

    Press freedom ranking

  • 96,8%

    Internet penetration

  • 14

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Slovakia

Traditionally, the most trusted source of information has been radio broadcast, in recent years closely followed by television...

  • 17

    Press freedom ranking

  • 82.5 %

    Internet penetration

  • 24

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 36

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Spain

The media landscape painted in Spain in the early 1990s survives to a great extent today and, with it, its wide ideological range...

  • 29

    Press freedom ranking

  • 82.2 %

    Internet penetration

  • 25

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 4

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Sweden

Sweden has traditionally been more of a newspaper than television country. Today, it is a very digital country...

  • 8

    Press freedom ranking

  • 93.1 %

    Internet penetration

  • 14

    Peace index ranking

  • Radio

    Most trusted medium

  • 74

    Net trust index

  • Constitutional monarchy

    Government type

Switzerland

Over the last 30 years, regional press monopolies have been established in almost all regions...

  • 7

    Press freedom ranking

  • 88,0%

    Internet penetration

  • 9

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Lebanon

In recent years, the Lebanese media landscape has been facing one of its deepest crisis since the formal end of the civil war...

  • 99

    Press freedom ranking

  • 75.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 146

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Iran

Political parties do not exist in Iran. In this situation the media, particularly the newspapers, have assumed a central role...

  • 165

    Press freedom ranking

  • 48.9 %

    Internet penetration

  • 133

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Iraq

Higher education in journalism is consolidated in Iraq, but it has remained largely disconnected from global developments since the 1970s...

  • 158

    Press freedom ranking

  • 13%

    Internet penetration

  • 161

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Syria

Syria cannot be considered any longer a unitary context. What is true in one area of the country does not necessarily apply to the others...

  • 177

    Press freedom ranking

  • 29.6 %

    Internet penetration

  • 163

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

Yemen

Two years of war have changed the Yemeni media landscape for worst in terms of publications, independence, freedom of the media...

  • 166

    Press freedom ranking

  • 24,7%

    Internet penetration

  • 158

    Peace index ranking

  • N/A

    Most trusted medium

  • N/A

    Net trust index

  • Republic

    Government type

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