Trade unions are absent from almost all media companies in Indonesia. This condition results in the low bargaining position of journalists when there are employment/personnel issues starting from salary problems to the termination of employment. The scarce awareness to join a union was considered as the dominant factor of the low number of trade unions. The majority of trade unions is still centralised in Jakarta, the Capital City of Indonesia.
Data collected in 2014 by Federasi Serikat Pekerja Media (Federation of Media Workers Unions - FSPM ) showed that only 24 out of 2,338 media companies (1 percent) had links with a trade union. Meanwhile, according to a 2015 report by Aliansi Jurnalis Independen (Alliance of Independent Journalists), there were only 17 active press trade unions out of the total of 24 registered press trade unions.