Audience measurement organisations
Data concerning media in Indonesia are provided by many institutions. Printed media data are provided by the Press Council, the Serikat Penerbit Suratkabar (Newspaper Publishers Union - SPS), and the Asosiasi Penerbit Suratkabar (Association of Newspaper Publishers). Every year, the Press Council publishes a book entitled “Data Pers National”. Meanwhile, every year, SPS publishes a book entitled “Media Directory”. Both of the books only display the list of names and media profiles (such as address, editorial organisation, etc). Unfortunately, data concerning the number of circulation or the number of readers of the printed media are not available on the books. Data concerning radio were provided by Persatuan Radio Siaran Swasta National Indonesia (Association of National Private Radio Broadcasting Indonesia - PRSSNI). Similarly to the data about media, PRSSNI data concerning radios only contain the list of names and profiles of radios. No data concerning the number of radio listeners.
The most complete data concerning media are provided by Nielsen Media Research (NMR), which began their research activities in Indonesia in 1991. The main product of NMR is Panel Survei Kepemirsaan Television (Television Audience Measurement - TAM) which provides data on the daily ratings of television programmes. Data about ratings by NMR are used as the base for determining which program is preferred by the public by advertising agencies and television stations. In 2016, the rating of television by NMR was conducted on 2,273 households that own a TV set or 8,736 individuals part of the television audience in 11 big cities in Indonesia (Hendriyani & Eriyanto, 2016). Besides data on television rating displayed daily, NMR annually conducts a survey concerning the newspaper readers and radio listeners. Data of television audience (rating), radio listeners and newspaper readers from NMR can be accessed paying a fee. Data concerning the film industry are provided by Konfiden, an institution providing data on all movies, reviews and audience. Data on the audience numbers was obtained by collecting data on the attendance from cinema networks.