The Colegio de Periodistas de Nicaragua (Journalists Association of Nicaragua - CPN) is the only union empowered by law to defend the rights of journalists. The CPN was created on 6 March, 2001, when the parliament approved Law No 372, which establishes the duties and the rights of journalists and grants protection from the State to all communicators. However, this law is not fulfilled in practice. According to the law, a new president of the CPN must be appointed every three years, with the duty to guarantee labor rights, decent wages, healthy working conditions and training for affiliated journalists. Each year, the State must deliver the funds of two national lottery drawings to the CPN to meet its needs, but this is not always the case. The CPN is controlled by the Sandinista party, which does not give confidence to communicators of other orientations about joining. In reality, the CPN is not responding to the demands of journalists, does not support in problem solving and does not urge the State to fulfill its obligations, precisely because the people who direct it are related to the Sandinista government.
The Sindicato Nacional de Periodistas (National Syndicate of Journalists - SPN) was created in the late 1990s and was working until the end of 2010, but as of 2019 it is no longer active. The SPN had an operative base in Managua named the Colonia del Periodista (House of Journalists), but it has been abandoned due to the lack of interest of journalists to join it.
There are also two other trade unions controlled by political parties, such as the Unión de Periodistas de Nicaragua (Union of Nicaraguan Journalists - UPN) and the Asociación de Periodistas de Nicaragua (Association of Nicaraguan Journalists - APN).