There is no legal requirement for Ukrainian journalists to undergo professional development. However, it is considered professional to do so and is therefore very common. Professional development courses are numerous and are offered by various entities. First and foremost, such courses are available at Universities and postgraduate educational institutions. For instance, the Institute of Journalism of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv offers seven different professional development programmes. Another good example is the Ukrainian TV, Radio Broadcasting and Press Institute that specialises exclusively in programmes of professional development for journalists working in either of three sub-sectors. Secondly, such programmes may be delivered either by associations of the media sector or by foreign/international journalistic organisations. A good example is the Ukrainian Media E-School organised by the Independent Association of Broadcasters in cooperation with DW Akademie. Finally, professional development services are offered by media development organisations to be dwelled upon in the section below. A good example is OPEN Media Hub. A big role in education of journalists is played by media NGOs such as Internews Ukraine, Detector Media, Fundatsiya Suspilnist (Commonness Foundation), Ukraine Crisis Media Centre, Instytut rozvytku regionalnoyi presy (Institute for the Development of Regional Press), etc.