Audience measurement organisations
Newspapers annually measure circulation through TS Mediefakta (TS), even though some of the biggest papers have left the system, and measure reach three times a year, through TNS Sifo Research International (Orvesto). Both have been running for decades.
Television and radio are measured by people meters, radio by portable people meters. Television is measured by MMS (Mediemätningar i Skandinavien), and radio by TNS Sifo Research International. Reports are made public four times a year.
KIA Index measures Internet sites, but not all sites are connected to the system. The measurement unit for KIA is the number of unique web browsers, not individuals as in the other systems. KIA is run by the National Association of Advertisers.
In addition, several organisations measure reach and frequency for some or all media forms annually, the most important being TNS Sifo Research International and Nordicom at the University of Gothenburg. Both organisations measure all media forms, TNS Sifo Research International measures each individual brand, whereas Nordicom, as a non-commercial organisation, measures the general use of each media form.