Universities and schools
Journalism education in Germany is institutionalised in several bodies. Traditionally, journalists-to-be take part in and successfully complete a two-year internship within a publishing house or in broadcasting corporations. This professional experience has to be completed with additional courses within a journalist’s academy, with further vocational training. The biggest one of these is the Akademie für Publizistik in Hamburg.
Additionally, several universities also offer degrees in Journalism Studies (Hamburg, Dortmund, Leipzig, and Eichstätt, among others). Journalism education is also offered in independent journalism schools (such as in Munich), and in schools owned by media houses, like the Axel Springer Academy. With the growing amount of commercial media outlets and the increasing importance of online journalism, the landscape of journalism is more and more scattered, and the degree of education among journalists varies heavily.
Germany does not have a strong tradition of media-related NGOs. Media issues are dealt with within each party's’ political foundations. Media research is hosted by a vast variety of institutions, like university-based institutes, media research divisions of both public and commercial broadcasters, and independent research institutes such as the GfK and Nielsen Media Research.