Similarly to trade unions, these associations have gained presence in the last years as a response to the attacks that journalists and their rights have received. Some of these organisations have become strong elements in the fight for freedom of speech and they produce some of the few statistics and information about the situation of media context.
Some of these organisations have a long history: The Colegio Nacional de Periodistas (National School of Journalists - CNP) was founded in 1976 as a substitution of the Asociación Venezolana de Periodistas (Venezuelan Association of Journalists - AVP), that had been created in 1941. This is the main professional association and is the one ensuring the free and responsible praxis of journalism in the country, ruled by the Ley de Ejercicio del Periodismo (Law on Journalistic Exercise) and the one in charge of its Code of Ethics (see 3.3).
The Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa (Inter American Press Society - SIP), acting in the whole American continent, was also created in 1926. They all have the goal of defending freedom of speech and protecting journalists in their work. With the same objective, the Asociación de Periodistas Venezolanos en el Extranjero (Association of Venezuelan Journalists Abroad - APEVEX) appeared in 2012 during the government of Hugo Chávez. It has played a great role in the last years after the exodus of many Venezuelans during the crisis and after many journalists of the country have left it because of its lack of freedom. All these groups are supposed to be independent from political authorities, but they can be considered critical with the authoritative and repressive behaviour of the government. In this field the role of IPYS is of great relevance.
Less relevant, but important in the chavist circles, is the Fundación Movimiento Periodismo Necesario (Necessary Journalism Movement Foundation - FMPN), which theoretically has the same goals as the previous ones, but it develops a much weaker and less combative agenda.