Universities and schools
There are around 21 universities and institutes that provide some form of academic certification in media in the country, however, the degrees and areas of specialization differ. Not every degree holder is a journalist and not every journalist has an academic degree. According to recent research, 65.2 percent of the journalists participating in the study had specialised training in journalism and/or communication. The degree holders have to complete 4 years at the university and for print media they have to pass the Press Registration Exam. The hiring procedures, however, are different and associated with the network of government contacts, especially in television and radio. The print media has different measures as non-degree holders prove themselves by practice and pass the National Press and Publication Exam.
Although the number of institutions providing media studies would seem sufficient, there is no unified curriculum or standard requirement for applicants or media professionals. The content analysis done by Thomson Foundation used a small sample as part of the media project and found that the basic journalistic standards were not well developed among most of the participants who are currently leading the media sector in the country. Only a few of them had the chance to practice before entering the media sector and most academic institutions do not have studios or provide time to practice, as all of them should wait for available space in the National Television and Radio facilities. According to the same Thomson Foundation Research, in general the lack of academic qualifications among managers of media institutes discourages young journalists and interested students from entering the field. Some of the research participants stated the university information was not useful in the practice as it confuses on media history. Khartoum University, however, appears to provide inclusive classes of media studies at the enter level as students receive information recent studies such as media for development.