Audience measurement organisations
For all commercial media, it is important to be able to document the size and composition of their users. Each of the major media relies on services from market-research bureaus. In order to document the readership of even small newspapers, a large survey is necessary. TNS Gallup (now Kantar TNS) has been conducting the survey that covers newspapers, online newspapers and magazines.
In order to register radio listening and television viewing, the market researchers use sophisticated, technical equipment, including portable devices (either fixed to the person or attached to the receiver). The technique used for measuring radio listening, is called Portable People Meter (PPM), while television viewing is measured by a “TV meter”, which is attached to all receiving equipment in the household. For radio as well as television, there is a cooperation between the major media companies. For both radio and television, TNS Gallup has been conducting the data collection and analyses for the media companies.
In addition to the media-specific reporting, there are some annual surveys that aim at covering the whole spectrum of media use. Statistisk sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) conducts an annual survey of the use of a wide range of media, called Norsk mediebarometer (Norwegian Media Barometer). TNS Gallup conducts a similar survey called Forbruker&Media (Consumer and Media).