Universities and schools
Formal training for journalists started in the early post war period. In 1965 the state took over responsibility for journalism education and created Norsk Journalistskole (Norwegian School of Journalism), which was later integrated in Høgskolen i Oslo (Oslo Univeristy College), now Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences - HiOA). The second school of journalism was established at Høgskulen i Volda (Volda University College) in 1971. Four universities offer bachelor and/or master degrees in journalism: University of Stavanger (bachelor), University of Bergen (bachelor), Nord University (several campuses, with Bodø as the central location) (bachelor), University of Oslo (bachelor and master). With a bachelor degree in journalism, it is often possible to be accepted at master progrmmes in media studies. Two private institutions for higher education, Norsk Lærerakademi (NLA University College) and Høyskolen Kristiania (Kristiania University College) also have bachelor degrees in journalism.
In order to serve the Sami-language minority there is a special bachelor’s program in Sami journalism and cultural journalism, located at the Sámi Allaskuvla (Sámi University of Applied Sciences) in Kautokeino.