Universities and schools
In his book Journalism in Iran: From Mission to Profession, Hossein Shahidi reminds us that the first training course for journalists was organised in Tehran in 1939 by the Ministry of Culture and had among its teachers some of the leading literary figures of the time. In 1965 the publisher of the newspaper Keyhan, Mostafa Mesbahzadeh, set up a College for Social Communication Sciences, with four years BA courses in journalism, photography, public relations, translation and filmmaking. In 1969 the Higher School of Cinema and Television was founded, with the ownership of the State television and radio corporation. After the 1979 revolution the new authorities shut down all universities in order to enforce a policy for the elimination of secular and leftist elements among teachers and students. It was only in the 1980s that education in journalism reemerged, for the first time with courses organised by the Department of Social Communication Sciences at the Allameh Tabatabai University, controlled by the State. Today there are six universities teaching journalism: Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran University (also owned by the State), Sooreh Institute of Higher Education (private), Kerman Institute of Higher Education (private), the public Payame Nour University, that offers courses in journalism in 24 branches around the country, and the Iran Broadcasting University, affiliated to the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) that has branches in Tehran, Qom and Dubai and is specialised in TV and radio journalism and directing. Acceptance to all universities, including for the courses in journalism, requires taking the national university entrance exam, the so called Concours.