from Overview to Education (Professional development)

● Abbas Hassan, Censure et information, in Confluences Méditerranée, 44, Winter 2002-2003, pp. 39-46.

● Baiazy, Amjad, Syria’s Cyber Wars, in Media Policy, January 06, 2012.

● Alhamad Amr, Holding on to Seadom: Insights on the Reality of Radio and Web Publishing in Syria, Pol Center Çarşı, Istanbul, November 2016.

● Andén-Papadopoulos Kari and Pantti Mervi, The Media Work of Syrian Diaspora Activists: Brokering Between the Protest and Mainstream Media, in International Journal of Communication, 7, 2013, pp.2185-2206.

● Atton Chris, Alternative Media - Culture, Representation and Identity, London, Sage 2001.

● Badran Yazan and De Angelis Enrico, Independent Kurdish Media in Syria. Conflicting Identities in the Transition, Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, Vol.9, 3, pp.334-351, Brill 2016.

● Badran Yazan and De Angelis Enrico, IMS Report, unpublished 2016.

● Barakat Rabie, New Media in the Arab Worls: a Tool for Redesigning Geopolitical Realities, PhD Thesis, AUB, Beirut 2011.

● al-Bunni Akram, Syria’s Crisis of Expression, in Arab Insight, Vol.2, No.1, Winter 2008, pp.99-106.

● Castells Manuel, Communication, Power and Counter-power in the Network Society, in International Journal of Communication, Vol.1, 2007, pp. 238-266.

● Dollet Soazig, The new Syrian press, Agence française de coopération médias (CFI), September 2015.

● Dubai Press Club, Arab Media Outlook 2009-2013.

● Dubai School of Government’s Governance and Innovation Program, The Arab Social Media Report 2015.

● Elkjer Nissen Thomas, - IS’s Social Media Warfare in Syria and Iraq, in Military Studies Magazines, Contemporary Conflict, Royal Defence College, Vol.2, Issue 2, 2014.

● Fiedler Anke, Veenstra Bart and Spilker Dirk, Syria Audience Research 2016, Free Press Unlimited (FPU et al) 2016.

● George Alan, Syria: Neither Bread nor Freedom, London: Zed Books, 2003.

● Hafez Kai, Arab Media: Power and Weakness. London, Continuum 2008.

● Hallin Daniel C. and Mancini Paolo, Comparing Media Systems, Cambridge University Press, 2004.

● al-Hussein Ayham, Abyad Layla, Sabbagh Rand, Alwany Raheb, Peace Journalism or War Journalism? Role an Impact of Alternative Media Groups on The Syrian Conflict, Badael Foundation, Istanbul 2016.

● ILA Country Report - Syria 2015.

● Institute for War & Peace Reporting, Syria Media Map, 2013.

Irex Media Sustainability Index (MSI), 2009.

● Kawakibi Salam, The Private Media in Syria, University of Amsterdam and HIVOS 2010.

● Kenyon Peter, For Foreign Journalist, a Rare Invitation to Damascus, NPR, October, 2016.

● Khalaf Rana, Ramadan Oula, Stolleis Friederike, Activism in Difficult Times, Civil Society Groups in Syria. 2011-2014, Badael Project/Friederich-Ebert-Stiftung, Beirut 2014.

● Kinzer Stephen, The Media are Misleading the Public on Syria in The Boston Globe, 18/12/2016.

● Kraidy Marwan M., Syria: Media Reform and its Limitations, in Arab Reform Bulletin, Vo.4, Issue 4, May 2006.

● Malsin Jared, Why it’s getting harder to report on Syria, in Columbia Journalism Review, September 22, 2014.

● Pies Judith and Madanat Philip, Media accountability practices online in Syria. An indicator for changing perceptions of journalism, Journalism Research and Development Centre, University of Tampere, Finland 2011.

● Reporters Without Borders for Freedom of Information, Journalism in Syria, impossible job?, November 2013.

● Sawah Wael, The Dialectic Relationship between the Political and the Civil in the Syrian Civil Society Movement, Arab Reform Initiative. Issue 34, 2009.

● Taki Maha, Bloggers and the Blogosphere in Lebanon & Syria Meanings and Activities, Ph.D. thesis, University of Westminster, August 2010.

● Thompson Alex, Q&A, How foreign journalist operate in Syria, Channel 4, April 2, 2013.

● Trombetta Lorenzo, Syria Assessment: Media & Telecom Backgrounds, Internews, Beirut 2012.

● Trombetta Lorenzo, Altering Courses in Unknown Waters: Interaction between Traditional and New Media during the First Months of the Syrian Uprising, in Global Media Journal, Vol.2, No.1, Spring/Summer 2012.

● Weeden, Lisa, Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoricand Symbols in Contemporary Syria. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago-London, 1999.

from Education (Media development organisations) to Traditional forms of communication

Arab Media Outlook, 2016-2018. Youth… Content… Digital Media, Dubai Press Club/Dubai Media City, Dubai 2018.

● ‘Awda D., al-As‘ad R., Ziyada ‘A., Dalati N. Min ‘Afrin ila Jarabulus… Turkya saghira fi’l-shamal, in Enab Baladi, 26 August 2018.

● Badran Y., De Angelis E. Independent’ Kurdish Media in Syria: Conflicting Identities in the Transition, in Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 9, 2016, pp. 334-351.

● Bakr J., al-Hallak A.A. Journalism in Crisis. A content analysis of the emerging media sector in Syria, The Samir Kassir Foundation/Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom (FNF) 2018.

● Bayram A.S. Entrepreneurship in conflict zones. January 2017.

● Brownlee B.J. Media development in Syria: the Janus-faced nature of foreign aid assistance, in Third World Quarterly, 2017, pp.1-20

● Buchman D., Mason B. ICT4Refugees. A report on the emerging landscape of digital responses to the refugee crisis. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Bonn 2016.

● Ibrahim H. Sinama suriyya fi khidmat al-diktatur li-tams jara’imihi, in Enab Baladi, 28 October 2018.

● ITU. The State of Broadband 2018: Broadband catalyzing sustainable development, 2018.

● Madar Research and Development. Arab ICT Use and Social Networks Adoption Report. King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Dubai 2012.

● Mazzanti D. Study on Innovation and Technology in Syria, SME Support Programme 2010.

● Nicosia A. Il cinema arabo. Roma, Carocci 2007.

● Pimmer C., Huhua F. Forging new lives using mobile technology, in The Unesco Courier, vol. 4, October-December 2018, pp. 52-53.

● Ruocco M. Storia del teatro arabo dalla nahda a oggi. Carocci, Roma 2010.

● Salamandra C. Ambivalent Islam: Religion in Syrian Television Drama, in Van Nieuwkerk K., Levine M. (eds.), Islam and Popular Culture. University of Texas Press, Austin 2016.

● Salem F. The Arab Social Media Report 2017: Social Media and the Internet of Things: Towards Data-Driven Policy Making in the Arab World (Vol. 7). MBR School of Government, Dubai 2017.

● Salem F., The Arab World Online 2017: Digital Transformations and Societal Trends in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution (Vol. 3). MBR School of Government, Dubai 2017.

● Shaban R. Business Incubation Experience in Syria, 5th MENAInc workshop October 2007.

● Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. After expanding the observation posts in Syria, a Turkish Telecom company installs cellular towers at Idlib province, 3 June 2018.

Syrian Prints Archive

● The Syria Report. Syriatel, MTN Release 2017. Results, Still Major Contributors to Syrian Treasury, 20 February 2018.

● The Syria Report. Data Show Growing Syriatel Share in Telecoms Sector, 9 October 2018.

● UNESCO. Science Policy and Capacity-Building.

● U.S. Department of the Treasury. Three Entities Targeted by Treasury for Supporting Syria’s WMD Proliferation, 4 January 2007.

● Ziter E., Political Performance in Syria. From the Six-Day War to the Syrian Uprising, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015.

2020 Update

Alaa M., Inqita‘ khidmat al-internit al-turki ‘an shamali Suriya, SMART News, 21 January 2018.

Alaa M., “Tahrir al-Sham” taqta‘ khidmat al-intirnit ‘an mudun wa baldat bi-Idlib, SMART News, 26 February 2018.

Alaa M., Bad’ al-‘aml bi-shabakat intirnit ‘iraqiyya bi-l-Hasaka, SMART News, 28 January 2019.

De Angelis E., Badran Y., Journalism in Rojava: Media Institutions, Regulations and Organisations, Syria Untold.

Della Ratta D., Emerging from the underground: On ‘For Sama’ and mainstream filmmaking, Syria Untold, 14 May 2020.

Enab Baladi, Idarat “Bab al-Hawa” tusadir jaridat Enab Baladi bi-sabab maqal yantaqid “al-Nusra”, 31 January 2017.

Freedom House, Freedom House, Freedom on the Net 2019 - Syria, 31 May 2019.

Haid H., HTS’s Offline Propaganda: Infrastructure, Engagement and Monopoly, ICSR, 19 September 2019.

Issa R., New Cinema in Syria: The revolution continues, but so does censorship, Open Democracy, 4 February 2020.

Kepios, Digital 2019: Syria, 31 January 2019.

Reporters Without Borders, Harassment of pro-government journalists growing in Syria, 15-16 July 2019.

Reporters Without Borders, Journalist arrested in city controlled by Syrian government, 4 June 2020.

Salamandra C., Past Continuous: The Chronopolitics of Representation in Syrian Television Drama, Middle East Critique, 3 April 2019,

al-Sharqi W., al-Watha’iqi al-suri wa jumhuruhu (4), Syria Untold, 18 January 2019.

al-Tamimi A. J., Idlib and Its Environs: Narrowing Prospects for a Rebel Holdout, Policy Notes 75, The Washinghton Institute, February 2020.

The New Arab. Syria TV bursts onto screens 'for all Syrians except the killers', 21 March 2018.

The Syria Report. Pressure on Phone Companies Suggests Possible Change in Structure and Ownership, 13 May 2020.

The Syria Report. In Another Blow, Rami Makhlouf Loses Control of Syriatel’s Management, 17 June 2020.

VDC. Qarar bi-man‘ isti‘mal al-intirnit al-turki fi manatiq al-idara al-dhatiyya shamal sharq Suriya, 11 March 2019.

WAN-IFRA, 2016 World Press Trends Report, 21 November 2016.